On 20th of January 2020, Amit Kapila committed patch:
Allow vacuum command to process indexes in parallel.
This feature allows the vacuum to leverage multiple CPUs in order to
process indexes. This enables us to perform index vacuuming and index
cleanup with background workers. This adds a PARALLEL option to VACUUM
command where the user can specify the number of workers that can be used
to perform the command which is limited by the number of indexes on a
table. Specifying zero as a number of workers will disable parallelism.
This option can't be used with the FULL option.
Each index is processed by at most one vacuum process. Therefore parallel
vacuum can be used when the table has at least two indexes.
The parallel degree is either specified by the user or determined based on
the number of indexes that the table has, and further limited by
max_parallel_maintenance_workers. The index can participate in parallel
vacuum iff it's size is greater than min_parallel_index_scan_size.
Author: Masahiko Sawada and Amit Kapila
Mahendra Singh and Sergei Kornilov
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 13 – Allow vacuum command to process indexes in parallel.
On 4th of April 2019, Robert Haas committed patch:
Allow VACUUM to be run with index cleanup disabled.
This commit adds a new reloption, vacuum_index_cleanup, which
controls whether index cleanup is performed for a particular
relation by default. It also adds a new option to the VACUUM
command, INDEX_CLEANUP, which can be used to override the
reloption. If neither the reloption nor the VACUUM option is
used, the default is true, as before.
Masahiko Sawada, reviewed and tested by Nathan Bossart, Alvaro
Herrera, Kyotaro Horiguchi, Darafei Praliaskouski, and me.
The wording of the documentation is mostly due to me.
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 12 – Allow VACUUM to be run with index cleanup disabled.
On 2nd of April 2019, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:
Report progress of CREATE INDEX operations
This uses the progress reporting infrastructure added by ,
adding support for CREATE INDEX and CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY.
There are two pieces to this: one is index-AM-agnostic, and the other is
AM-specific. The latter is fairly elaborate for btrees, including
reportage for parallel index builds and the separate phases that btree
index creation uses; other index AMs, which are much simpler in their
building procedures, have simplistic reporting only, but that seems
sufficient, at least for non-concurrent builds.
The index-AM-agnostic part is fairly complete, providing insight into
the CONCURRENTLY wait phases as well as block-based progress during the
index validation table scan. (The index validation index scan requires
patching each AM, which has not been included here.)
Reviewers: Rahila Syed, Pavan Deolasee, Tatsuro Yamada
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 12 – Report progress of CREATE INDEX operations
On 7th of April 2018, Teodor Sigaev committed patch:
Indexes with INCLUDE columns and their support in B-tree
This patch introduces INCLUDE clause to index definition. This clause
specifies a list of columns which will be included as a non-key part in
the index. The INCLUDE columns exist solely to allow more queries to
benefit from index-only scans. Also, such columns don't need to have
appropriate operator classes. Expressions are not supported as INCLUDE
columns since they cannot be used in index-only scans.
Index access methods supporting INCLUDE are indicated by amcaninclude flag
in IndexAmRoutine. For now, only B-tree indexes support INCLUDE clause.
In B-tree indexes INCLUDE columns are truncated from pivot index tuples
(tuples located in non-leaf pages and high keys). Therefore, B-tree indexes
now might have variable number of attributes. This patch also provides
generic facility to support that: pivot tuples contain number of their
attributes in t_tid.ip_posid. Free 13th bit of t_info is used for indicating
that. This facility will simplify further support of index suffix truncation.
The changes of above are backward-compatible, pg_upgrade doesn't need special
handling of B-tree indexes for that.
Bump catalog version
Author: Anastasia Lubennikova with contribition by Alexander Korotkov and me
Reviewed by: Peter Geoghegan, Tomas Vondra, Antonin Houska, Jeff Janes,
David Rowley, Alexander Korotkov
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 11 – Indexes with INCLUDE columns and their support in B-tree
Support parallel btree index builds.
To make this work, tuplesort.c and logtape.c must also support
parallelism, so this patch adds that infrastructure and then applies
it to the particular case of parallel btree index builds. Testing
to date shows that this can often be 2-3x faster than a serial
The model for deciding how many workers to use is fairly primitive
at present, but it's better than not having the feature. We can
refine it as we get more experience.
Peter Geoghegan with some help from Rushabh Lathia. While Heikki
Linnakangas is not an author of this patch, he wrote other patches
without which this feature would not have been possible, and
therefore the release notes should possibly credit him as an author
of this feature. Reviewed by Claudio Freire, Heikki Linnakangas,
Thomas Munro, Tels, Amit Kapila, me.
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 11 – Support parallel btree index builds.
On 1st of April, Teodor Sigaev committed patch:
Bloom index contrib module
Module provides new access method. It is actually a simple Bloom filter
implemented as pgsql's index. It could give some benefits on search
with large number of columns.
Module is a single way to test generic WAL interface committed earlier.
Author: Teodor Sigaev, Alexander Korotkov
Reviewers: Aleksander Alekseev, Michael Paquier, Jim Nasby
Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Bloom index contrib module
On 2nd of September, Teodor Sigaev committed patch:
Allow usage of huge maintenance_work_mem for GIN build.
Currently, in-memory posting list during GIN build process is limited 1GB
because of using repalloc. The patch replaces call of repalloc to repalloc_huge.
It increases limit of posting list from 180 millions
(1GB / sizeof(ItemPointerData)) to 4 billions limited by maxcount/count fields
in GinEntryAccumulator and subsequent calls. Check added.
Also, fix accounting of allocatedMemory during build to prevent integer
overflow with maintenance_work_mem > 4GB.
Robert Abraham <email@example.com> with additions by me
Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Allow usage of huge maintenance_work_mem for GIN build.
There exists an extension to PostgreSQL, which lets you use hypothetical indexes.
What are there? That's simple – these are indexes that don't really exist. So what good are they?
Continue reading Hypothetical indexes
On 26th of March, Heikki Linnakangas committed patch:
Add support for index-only scans in GiST.
This adds a new GiST opclass method, 'fetch', which is used to reconstruct
the original Datum from the value stored in the index. Also, the 'canreturn'
index AM interface function gains a new 'attno' argument. That makes it
possible to use index-only scans on a multi-column index where some of the
opclasses support index-only scans but some do not.
This patch adds support in the box and point opclasses. Other opclasses
can added later as follow-on patches (btree_gist would be particularly
Anastasia Lubennikova, with additional fixes and modifications by me.
Continue reading Waiting for 9.5 – Add support for index-only scans in GiST.
On 18th of March, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:
array_offset() and array_offsets()
These functions return the offset position or positions of a value in an
Author: Pavel Stěhule
Reviewed by: Jim Nasby
Continue reading Waiting for 9.5 – array_offset() and array_offsets()