For a long time hash indexed were not crash safe, and couldn't be used on replication slave, because they skipped WAL. Now, thanks to these two commits, it has changed:

On 14th of March 2017, Robert Haas committed patch:

hash: Add write-ahead logging support.
The warning about hash indexes not being write-ahead logged and their
use being discouraged has been removed.  "snapshot too old" is now
supported for tables with hash indexes.  Most importantly, barring
bugs, hash indexes will now be crash-safe and usable on standbys.
This commit doesn't yet add WAL consistency checking for hash
indexes, as we now have for other index types; a separate patch has
been submitted to cure that lack.
Amit Kapila, reviewed and slightly modified by me.  The larger patch
series of which this is a part has been reviewed and tested by Álvaro
Herrera, Ashutosh Sharma, Mark Kirkwood, Jeff Janes, and Jesper

and then, ~ 13 hours later, Robert committed also:

hash: Support WAL consistency checking.
Kuntal Ghosh, reviewed by Amit Kapila and Ashutosh Sharma, with
a few tweaks by me.

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On 8th of March, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:

XMLTABLE is defined by the SQL/XML standard as a feature that allows
turning XML-formatted data into relational form, so that it can be used
as a <table primary> in the FROM clause of a query.
This new construct provides significant simplicity and performance
benefit for XML data processing; what in a client-side custom
implementation was reported to take 20 minutes can be executed in 400ms
using XMLTABLE.  (The same functionality was said to take 10 seconds
using nested PostgreSQL XPath function calls, and 5 seconds using
XMLReader under PL/Python).
The implemented syntax deviates slightly from what the standard
requires.  First, the standard indicates that the PASSING clause is
optional and that multiple XML input documents may be given to it; we
make it mandatory and accept a single document only.  Second, we don't
currently support a default namespace to be specified.
This implementation relies on a new executor node based on a hardcoded
method table.  (Because the grammar is fixed, there is no extensibility
in the current approach; further constructs can be implemented on top of
this such as JSON_TABLE, but they require changes to core code.)
Author: Pavel Stehule, Álvaro Herrera
Extensively reviewed by: Craig Ringer

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On 7th of March, Stephen Frost committed patch:

psql: Add \gx command
It can often be useful to use expanded mode output (\x) for just a
single query.  Introduce a \gx which acts exactly like \g except that it
will force expanded output mode for that one \gx call.  This is simpler
than having to use \x as a toggle and also means that the user doesn't
have to worry about the current state of the expanded variable, or
resetting it later, to ensure a given query is always returned in
expanded mode.
Primairly Christoph's patch, though I did tweak the documentation and help
text a bit, and re-indented the tab completion section.
Author: Christoph Berg
Reviewed By: Daniel Verite
Discussion: <a href="">

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Long time ago I wrote first version of Since then I gradually improve it. But, what was lacking was a way to paste queries too – handles explains, but not plain queries.

Now this has changed. I created new site: which allows for sharing queries.

Thanks to pgFormatter it also does query pretty-printing (which is not something readily available on other paste sites).

Obviously, code to the site is publicly available in GitHub repo.

Now, goes my request – if you have designer skills, I would greatly appreciate someone that could make the site nicer (prettier, more responsive). My CSS/JS knowledge is pretty limited, and I'm happy anyway about what I did with the look right now, but if you could make it nicer/prettier, that would be amazing.

Have fun, and if you have any feature requests, please post them in here…

Every so often someone needs solution to getting first (or couple of first) values for given column. Or last.

For some cases (when there is not many groups) you can use recursive queries. But it's not always the best choice.

Let's try to implement first() and last() aggregates, so these could be easily used by anybody.

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I usually write about PostgreSQL, but lately someone asked for help, and one of the problems was similar to sudo command from title.

This was not the first time I saw it, so figured, I'll write a blogpost about it, just so I can refer people to it in the future.

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On 20th of January, Peter Eisentraut committed patch:

Logical replication
- Add PUBLICATION catalogs and DDL
- Add SUBSCRIPTION catalog and DDL
- Define logical replication protocol and output plugin
- Add logical replication workers
From: Petr Jelinek
Reviewed-by: Steve Singer
Reviewed-by: Andres Freund
Reviewed-by: Erik Rijkers
Reviewed-by: Peter Eisentraut

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On 20th of December, Peter Eisentraut committed patch:

Add pg_sequence system catalog
Move sequence metadata (start, increment, etc.) into a proper system
catalog instead of storing it in the sequence heap object.  This
separates the metadata from the sequence data.  Sequence metadata is now
operated on transactionally by DDL commands, whereas previously
rollbacks of sequence-related DDL commands would be ignored.
Reviewed-by: Andreas Karlsson

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Couple of people asked, on irc, about how to generate unique, short, ids for rows.

Since I wrote code for this for, I figured that instead of pointing to sources, and letting everyone to extract the functions, I will, instead, write a set of functions that what is needed in reusable way.

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I had two month delay related to some work, but now I can finally write about:

On 7th of December, Robert Haas committed patch:

Implement table partitioning.
Table partitioning is like table inheritance and reuses much of the
existing infrastructure, but there are some important differences.
The parent is called a partitioned table and is always empty; it may
not have indexes or non-inherited constraints, since those make no
sense for a relation with no data of its own.  The children are called
partitions and contain all of the actual data.  Each partition has an
implicit partitioning constraint.  Multiple inheritance is not
allowed, and partitioning and inheritance can't be mixed.  Partitions
can't have extra columns and may not allow nulls unless the parent
does.  Tuples inserted into the parent are automatically routed to the
correct partition, so tuple-routing ON INSERT triggers are not needed.
Tuple routing isn't yet supported for partitions which are foreign
tables, and it doesn't handle updates that cross partition boundaries.
Currently, tables can be range-partitioned or list-partitioned.  List
partitioning is limited to a single column, but range partitioning can
involve multiple columns.  A partitioning "column" can be an
Because table partitioning is less general than table inheritance, it
is hoped that it will be easier to reason about properties of
partitions, and therefore that this will serve as a better foundation
for a variety of possible optimizations, including query planner
optimizations.  The tuple routing based which this patch does based on
the implicit partitioning constraints is an example of this, but it
seems likely that many other useful optimizations are also possible.
Amit Langote, reviewed and tested by Robert Haas, Ashutosh Bapat,
Amit Kapila, Rajkumar Raghuwanshi, Corey Huinker, Jaime Casanova,
Rushabh Lathia, Erik Rijkers, among others.  Minor revisions by me.

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