Some (long) time ago, someone on irc suggested that I add option to keep track of optimizations of queries.

Sorry, I forgot your name, and the mails disappeared in some crash.

Anyway – right now, when you are on some plan page, you can press “Add optimization" button, and you will be redirected to index page, but when you will add plan there, it will be understood to be plan from optimization of the query. Like this one.

You can have any number of optimizations per plan, and when viewing plan that has optimizations, or is an optimization of earlier plan – you will see this above plan table.

Whether you'll use it – it's up to you. Someone wanted it, and it looked like sensible thing to add, so there it is 🙂

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I missed it completely, but on 24th of March 2017, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:

Implement multivariate n-distinct coefficients
 
 
Add support for explicitly declared statistic objects (CREATE
STATISTICS), allowing collection of statistics on more complex
combinations that individual table columns.  Companion commands DROP
STATISTICS and ALTER STATISTICS ... OWNER TO / SET SCHEMA / RENAME are
added too.  All this DDL has been designed so that more statistic types
can be added later on, such as multivariate most-common-values and
multivariate histograms between columns of a single table, leaving room
for permitting columns on multiple tables, too, as well as expressions.
 
This commit only adds support for collection of n-distinct coefficient
on user-specified sets of columns in a single table.  This is useful to
estimate number of distinct groups in GROUP BY and DISTINCT clauses;
estimation errors there can cause over-allocation of memory in hashed
aggregates, for instance, so it's a worthwhile problem to solve.  A new
special pseudo-type pg_ndistinct is used.
 
(num-distinct estimation was deemed sufficiently useful by itself that
this is worthwhile even if no further statistic types are added
immediately; so much so that another version of essentially the same
functionality was submitted by Kyotaro Horiguchi:
https://postgr.es/m/.173334..horiguchi.kyotaro@lab.ntt.co.jp
though this commit does not use that code.)
 
Author: Tomas Vondra.  Some code rework by Álvaro.
 
    Ideriha Takeshi
Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/.4080608@fuzzy.cz
    https://postgr.es/m/.ixlaueanxegqd5gr@alvherre.pgsql

Afterwards, there were couple more commits related to it:

  • On 5th of April 2017, patch committed by Simon Riggs
  • On 17th of April 2017, patch committed by Alvaro Herrera
  • On 12nd of May 2017, patch committed by Alvaro Herrera

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On 7th of March 2017, Heikki Linnakangas committed patch:

Support SCRAM-SHA-256 authentication (RFC 5802 and 7677).
 
 
This introduces a new generic SASL authentication method, similar to the
GSS and SSPI methods. The server first tells the client which SASL
authentication mechanism to use, and then the mechanism-specific SASL
messages are exchanged in AuthenticationSASLcontinue and PasswordMessage
messages. Only SCRAM-SHA-256 is supported at the moment, but this allows
adding more SASL mechanisms in the future, without changing the overall
protocol.
 
Support for channel binding, aka SCRAM-SHA-256-PLUS is left for later.
 
The SASLPrep algorithm, for pre-processing the password, is not yet
implemented. That could cause trouble, if you use a password with
non-ASCII characters, and a client library that does implement SASLprep.
That will hopefully be added later.
 
Authorization identities, as specified in the SCRAM-SHA-256 specification,
are ignored. SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION provides more or less the same
functionality, anyway.
 
If a user doesn't exist, perform a "mock" authentication, by constructing
an authentic-looking challenge on the fly. The challenge is derived from
a new system-wide random value, "mock authentication nonce", which is
created at initdb, and stored in the control file. We go through these
motions, in order to not give away the information on whether the user
exists, to unauthenticated users.
 
Bumps PG_CONTROL_VERSION, because of the new field in control file.
 
Patch by Michael Paquier and Heikki Linnakangas, reviewed at different
stages by Robert Haas, Stephen Frost, David Steele, Aleksander Alekseev,
and many others.
 
Discussion: https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/CAB7nPqRbR3GmFYdedCAhzukfKrgBLTLtMvENOmPrVWREsZkF8g%40mail.gmail.com
Discussion: https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/CAB7nPqSMXU35g%3DW9X74HVeQp0uvgJxvYOuA4A-A3M%2B0wfEBv-w%40mail.gmail.com
Discussion: https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/.6080106@iki.fi

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On 6th of April 2017, Peter Eisentraut committed patch:

Identity columns
 
This is the SQL standard-conforming variant of PostgreSQL's serial
columns.  It fixes a few usability issues that serial columns have:
 
- CREATE TABLE / LIKE copies default but refers to same sequence
- cannot add/drop serialness with ALTER TABLE
- dropping default does not drop sequence
- need to grant separate privileges to sequence
- other slight weirdnesses because serial is some kind of special macro

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On 31st of March 2017, Andrew Dunstan committed patch:

Full Text Search support for json and jsonb
 
The new functions are ts_headline() and to_tsvector.
 
Dmitry Dolgov, edited and documented by me.

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On 30th of March 2017, Tom Lane committed patch:

Support \if ... \elif ... \else ... \endif in psql scripting.
 
This patch adds nestable conditional blocks to psql.  The control
structure feature per se is complete, but the boolean expressions
understood by \if and \elif are pretty primitive; basically, after
variable substitution and backtick expansion, the result has to be
"true" or "false" or one of the other standard spellings of a boolean
value.  But that's enough for many purposes, since you can always
do the heavy lifting on the server side; and we can extend it later.
 
Along the way, pay down some of the technical debt that had built up
around psql/command.c:
* Refactor exec_command() into a function per command, instead of
being a 1500-line monstrosity.  This makes the file noticeably longer
because of repetitive function header/trailer overhead, but it seems
much more readable.
* Teach psql_get_variable() and psqlscanslash.l to suppress variable
substitution and backtick expansion on the basis of the conditional
stack state, thereby allowing removal of the OT_NO_EVAL kluge.
* Fix the no-doubt-once-expedient hack of sometimes silently substituting
mainloop.c's previous_buf for query_buf when calling HandleSlashCmds.
(It's a bit remarkable that commands like \r worked at all with that.)
Recall of a previous query is now done explicitly in the slash commands
where that should happen.
 
Corey Huinker, reviewed by Fabien Coelho, further hacking by me
 
Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CADkLM=c94OSRTnat=LX0ivNq4pxDNeoomFfYvBKM5N_xfmLtAA@mail.gmail.com

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On 23rd of March 2017, Peter Eisentraut committed patch:

Logical replication support for initial data copy
 
Add functionality for a new subscription to copy the initial data in the
tables and then sync with the ongoing apply process.
 
For the copying, add a new internal COPY option to have the COPY source
data provided by a callback function.  The initial data copy works on
the subscriber by receiving COPY data from the publisher and then
providing it locally into a COPY that writes to the destination table.
 
A WAL receiver can now execute full SQL commands.  This is used here to
obtain information about tables and publications.
 
Several new options were added to CREATE and ALTER SUBSCRIPTION to
control whether and when initial table syncing happens.
 
Change pg_dump option --no-create-subscription-slots to
--no-subscription-connect and use the new CREATE SUBSCRIPTION
... NOCONNECT option for that.
 
Author: Petr Jelinek

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For a long time hash indexed were not crash safe, and couldn't be used on replication slave, because they skipped WAL. Now, thanks to these two commits, it has changed:

On 14th of March 2017, Robert Haas committed patch:

hash: Add write-ahead logging support.
 
The warning about hash indexes not being write-ahead logged and their
use being discouraged has been removed.  "snapshot too old" is now
supported for tables with hash indexes.  Most importantly, barring
bugs, hash indexes will now be crash-safe and usable on standbys.
 
This commit doesn't yet add WAL consistency checking for hash
indexes, as we now have for other index types; a separate patch has
been submitted to cure that lack.
 
Amit Kapila, reviewed and slightly modified by me.  The larger patch
series of which this is a part has been reviewed and tested by Álvaro
Herrera, Ashutosh Sharma, Mark Kirkwood, Jeff Janes, and Jesper
Pedersen.
 
Discussion: http://postgr.es/m/CAA4eK1JOBX=YU33631Qh-XivYXtPSALh514+jR8XeD7v+K3r_Q@mail.gmail.com

and then, ~ 13 hours later, Robert committed also:

hash: Support WAL consistency checking.
 
Kuntal Ghosh, reviewed by Amit Kapila and Ashutosh Sharma, with
a few tweaks by me.
 
Discussion: http://postgr.es/m/CAGz5QCJLERUn_zoO0eDv6_Y_d0o4tNTMPeR7ivTLBg4rUrJdwg@mail.gmail.com

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On 8th of March, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:

XMLTABLE is defined by the SQL/XML standard as a feature that allows
turning XML-formatted data into relational form, so that it can be used
as a <table primary> in the FROM clause of a query.
 
This new construct provides significant simplicity and performance
benefit for XML data processing; what in a client-side custom
implementation was reported to take 20 minutes can be executed in 400ms
using XMLTABLE.  (The same functionality was said to take 10 seconds
using nested PostgreSQL XPath function calls, and 5 seconds using
XMLReader under PL/Python).
 
The implemented syntax deviates slightly from what the standard
requires.  First, the standard indicates that the PASSING clause is
optional and that multiple XML input documents may be given to it; we
make it mandatory and accept a single document only.  Second, we don't
currently support a default namespace to be specified.
 
This implementation relies on a new executor node based on a hardcoded
method table.  (Because the grammar is fixed, there is no extensibility
in the current approach; further constructs can be implemented on top of
this such as JSON_TABLE, but they require changes to core code.)
 
Author: Pavel Stehule, Álvaro Herrera
Extensively reviewed by: Craig Ringer
Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CAFj8pRAgfzMD-LoSmnMGybD0WsEznLHWap8DO79+-GTRAPR4qA@mail.gmail.com

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On 7th of March, Stephen Frost committed patch:

psql: Add \gx command
 
It can often be useful to use expanded mode output (\x) for just a
single query.  Introduce a \gx which acts exactly like \g except that it
will force expanded output mode for that one \gx call.  This is simpler
than having to use \x as a toggle and also means that the user doesn't
have to worry about the current state of the expanded variable, or
resetting it later, to ensure a given query is always returned in
expanded mode.
 
Primairly Christoph's patch, though I did tweak the documentation and help
text a bit, and re-indented the tab completion section.
 
Author: Christoph Berg
Reviewed By: Daniel Verite
Discussion: <a href="https://postgr.es/m/20170127132737.6skslelaf4txs6iw%40msg.credativ.de">https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/20170127132737.6skslelaf4txs6iw%40msg.credativ.de

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