Waiting for PostgreSQL 11 – Indexes with INCLUDE columns and their support in B-tree

On 7th of April 2018, Teodor Sigaev committed patch:

Indexes with INCLUDE columns and their support in B-tree
This patch introduces INCLUDE clause to index definition.  This clause
specifies a list of columns which will be included as a non-key part in
the index.  The INCLUDE columns exist solely to allow more queries to
benefit from index-only scans.  Also, such columns don't need to have
appropriate operator classes.  Expressions are not supported as INCLUDE
columns since they cannot be used in index-only scans.
Index access methods supporting INCLUDE are indicated by amcaninclude flag
in IndexAmRoutine.  For now, only B-tree indexes support INCLUDE clause.
In B-tree indexes INCLUDE columns are truncated from pivot index tuples
(tuples located in non-leaf pages and high keys).  Therefore, B-tree indexes
now might have variable number of attributes.  This patch also provides
generic facility to support that: pivot tuples contain number of their
attributes in t_tid.ip_posid.  Free 13th bit of t_info is used for indicating
that.  This facility will simplify further support of index suffix truncation.
The changes of above are backward-compatible, pg_upgrade doesn't need special
handling of B-tree indexes for that.
Bump catalog version
Author: Anastasia Lubennikova with contribition by Alexander Korotkov and me
Reviewed by: Peter Geoghegan, Tomas Vondra, Antonin Houska, Jeff Janes,
             David Rowley, Alexander Korotkov
Discussion: https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/.4010101@postgrespro.ru

Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 11 – Indexes with INCLUDE columns and their support in B-tree

Waiting for 9.6 – Generate parallel sequential scan plans in simple cases.

On 11th of November, Robert Haas committed patch:

Generate parallel sequential scan plans in simple cases.
Add a new flag, consider_parallel, to each RelOptInfo, indicating
whether a plan for that relation could conceivably be run inside of
a parallel worker.  Right now, we're pretty conservative: for example,
it might be possible to defer applying a parallel-restricted qual
in a worker, and later do it in the leader, but right now we just
don't try to parallelize access to that relation.  That's probably
the right decision in most cases, anyway.
Using the new flag, generate parallel sequential scan plans for plain
baserels, meaning that we now have parallel sequential scan in
PostgreSQL.  The logic here is pretty unsophisticated right now: the
costing model probably isn't right in detail, and we can't push joins
beneath Gather nodes, so the number of plans that can actually benefit
from this is pretty limited right now.  Lots more work is needed.
Nevertheless, it seems time to enable this functionality so that all
this code can actually be tested easily by users and developers.
Note that, if you wish to test this functionality, it will be
necessary to set max_parallel_degree to a value greater than the
default of 0.  Once a few more loose ends have been tidied up here, we
might want to consider changing the default value of this GUC, but
I'm leaving it alone for now.
Along the way, fix a bug in cost_gather: the previous coding thought
that a Gather node's transfer overhead should be costed on the basis of
the relation size rather than the number of tuples that actually need
to be passed off to the leader.
Patch by me, reviewed in earlier versions by Amit Kapila.

Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Generate parallel sequential scan plans in simple cases.

Waiting for 9.5 – Add support for index-only scans in GiST.

On 26th of March, Heikki Linnakangas committed patch:

Add support for index-only scans in GiST.
This adds a new GiST opclass method, 'fetch', which is used to reconstruct
the original Datum from the value stored in the index. Also, the 'canreturn'
index AM interface function gains a new 'attno' argument. That makes it
possible to use index-only scans on a multi-column index where some of the
opclasses support index-only scans but some do not.
This patch adds support in the box and point opclasses. Other opclasses
can added later as follow-on patches (btree_gist would be particularly
Anastasia Lubennikova, with additional fixes and modifications by me.

Continue reading Waiting for 9.5 – Add support for index-only scans in GiST.

Explaining the unexplainable – part 3

In previous post in the series I wrote about how to interpret single line in explain analyze output, it's structure, and later on described all basic data-getting operations (nodes in explain tree).

Today, we'll move towards more complicated operations.

Continue reading Explaining the unexplainable – part 3

Waiting for 9.2 – Index only scans

On 8th of October, Tom Lane committed patch:

Support index-only scans using the visibility map to avoid heap fetches.
When a btree index contains all columns required by the query, and the
visibility map shows that all tuples on a target heap page are
visible-to-all, we don't need to fetch that heap page.  This patch depends
on the previous patches that made the visibility map reliable.
There's a fair amount left to do here, notably trying to figure out a less
chintzy way of estimating the cost of an index-only scan, but the core
functionality seems ready to commit.
Robert Haas and Ibrar Ahmed, with some previous work by Heikki Linnakangas.

Continue reading Waiting for 9.2 – Index only scans