How to limit rows to at most N per category

The question was asked relatively recently on irc. And it proved to be non-trivial.

Surely, if you want to have one row per category (one address per user), it's trivial – add user_id column to addresses, make it unique, and we're done. But what if we want to allow five addresses? Or five thousands?

Let's see.

Continue reading How to limit rows to at most N per category

Waiting for PostgreSQL 12 – Support foreign keys that reference partitioned tables

On 3rd of April 2019, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:

Support foreign keys that reference partitioned tables
 
 
Previously, while primary keys could be made on partitioned tables, it
was not possible to define foreign keys that reference those primary
keys.  Now it is possible to do that.
 
Author: Álvaro Herrera
 
Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20181102234158.735b3fevta63msbj@alvherre.pgsql

Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 12 – Support foreign keys that reference partitioned tables

Foreign Key to partitioned table – part 2

Previously I wrote about how to create foreign key pointing to partitioned table.

Final solution in there required four separate functions and four triggers for each key between two tables.

Let's see how fast it is, and if it's possible to make it simpler.

Continue reading Foreign Key to partitioned table – part 2

Waiting for 9.6 – Add num_nulls() and num_nonnulls() to count NULL arguments.

On 5th of February, Tom Lane committed patch:

Add num_nulls() and num_nonnulls() to count NULL arguments.
 
An example use-case is "CHECK(num_nonnulls(a,b,c) = 1)" to assert that
exactly one of a,b,c isn't NULL.  The functions are variadic, so they
can also be pressed into service to count the number of null or nonnull
elements in an array.
 
Marko Tiikkaja, reviewed by Pavel Stehule

Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Add num_nulls() and num_nonnulls() to count NULL arguments.

Waiting for 9.6 – Implement lookbehind constraints in our regular-expression engine.

On 30th of October, Tom Lane committed patch:

Implement lookbehind constraints in our regular-expression engine.
 
A lookbehind constraint is like a lookahead constraint in that it consumes
no text; but it checks for existence (or nonexistence) of a match *ending*
at the current point in the string, rather than one *starting* at the
current point.  This is a long-requested feature since it exists in many
other regex libraries, but Henry Spencer had never got around to
implementing it in the code we use.
 
Just making it work is actually pretty trivial; but naive copying of the
logic for lookahead constraints leads to code that often spends O(N^2) time
to scan an N-character string, because we have to run the match engine
from string start to the current probe point each time the constraint is
checked.  In typical use-cases a lookbehind constraint will be written at
the start of the regex and hence will need to be checked at every character
--- so O(N^2) work overall.  To fix that, I introduced a third copy of the
core DFA matching loop, paralleling the existing longest() and shortest()
loops.  This version, matchuntil(), can suspend and resume matching given
a couple of pointers' worth of storage space.  So we need only run it
across the string once, stopping at each interesting probe point and then
resuming to advance to the next one.
 
I also put in an optimization that simplifies one-character lookahead and
lookbehind constraints, such as "(?=x)" or "(?<!\w)", into AHEAD and BEHIND
constraints, which already existed in the engine.  This avoids the overhead
of the LACON machinery entirely for these rather common cases.
 
The net result is that lookbehind constraints run a factor of three or so
slower than Perl's for multi-character constraints, but faster than Perl's
for one-character constraints ... and they work fine for variable-length
constraints, which Perl gives up on entirely.  So that's not bad from a
competitive perspective, and there's room for further optimization if
anyone cares.  (In reality, raw scan rate across a large input string is
probably not that big a deal for Postgres usage anyway; so I'm happy if
it's linear.)

Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Implement lookbehind constraints in our regular-expression engine.

Waiting for 9.5 – Reduce lock levels of some trigger DDL and add FKs

On 5th of April, Simon Riggs committed patch:

Reduce lock levels of some trigger DDL and add FKs
 
Reduce lock levels to ShareRowExclusive for the following SQL
 CREATE TRIGGER (but not DROP or ALTER)
 ALTER TABLE ENABLE TRIGGER
 ALTER TABLE DISABLE TRIGGER
 ALTER TABLE … ADD CONSTRAINT FOREIGN KEY
 
Original work by Simon Riggs, extracted and refreshed by Andreas Karlsson
New test cases added by Andreas Karlsson
Reviewed by Noah Misch, Andres Freund, Michael Paquier and Simon Riggs

Continue reading Waiting for 9.5 – Reduce lock levels of some trigger DDL and add FKs

Waiting for 9.4 – ALTER TABLE … ALTER CONSTRAINT for FKs

On 28th of June, Simon Riggs committed patch:

ALTER TABLE ... ALTER CONSTRAINT for FKs
 
Allow constraint attributes to be altered,
so the default setting of NOT DEFERRABLE
can be altered to DEFERRABLE and back.
 
Review by Abhijit Menon-Sen

Continue reading Waiting for 9.4 – ALTER TABLE … ALTER CONSTRAINT for FKs