On 3rd of February 2022, Peter Eisentraut committed patch:
Add UNIQUE null treatment option
The SQL standard has been ambiguous about whether null values in
unique constraints should be considered equal or not. Different
implementations have different behaviors. In the SQL:202x draft, this
has been formalized by making this implementation-defined and adding
an option on unique constraint definitions UNIQUE [ NULLS [NOT]
DISTINCT ] to choose a behavior explicitly.
This patch adds this option to PostgreSQL. The default behavior
remains UNIQUE NULLS DISTINCT. Making this happen in the btree code
is pretty easy; most of the patch is just to carry the flag around to
all the places that need it.
The CREATE UNIQUE INDEX syntax extension is not from the standard,
it's my own invention.
I named all the internal flags, catalog columns, etc. in the negative
("nulls not distinct") so that the default PostgreSQL behavior is the
default if the flag is false.
Reviewed-by: Maxim Orlov <email@example.com>
Reviewed-by: Pavel Borisov <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 15 – Add UNIQUE null treatment option
A bit ago I wrote a blog post that was supposed to show how to keep number of rows in table to N per some category.
Unfortunately, I overlooked a problem related to concurrency.
Continue reading How to limit rows to at most N per category – fix
The question was asked relatively recently on irc. And it proved to be non-trivial.
Surely, if you want to have one row per category (one address per user), it's trivial – add user_id column to addresses, make it unique, and we're done. But what if we want to allow five addresses? Or five thousands?
Continue reading How to limit rows to at most N per category
On 3rd of April 2019, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:
Support foreign keys that reference partitioned tables
Previously, while primary keys could be made on partitioned tables, it
was not possible to define foreign keys that reference those primary
keys. Now it is possible to do that.
Author: Álvaro Herrera
Continue reading Waiting for PostgreSQL 12 – Support foreign keys that reference partitioned tables
Previously I tested performance of pl/PgSQL coded foreign keys to partitioned table.
Now, let's see if I can make creation of them a bit easier.
Continue reading Foreign Key to partitioned table – part 3
Previously I wrote about how to create foreign key pointing to partitioned table.
Final solution in there required four separate functions and four triggers for each key between two tables.
Let's see how fast it is, and if it's possible to make it simpler.
Continue reading Foreign Key to partitioned table – part 2
One of the long standing limitations of partitions is that you can't have foreign keys pointing to them.
Let's see if I can make it possible to have some kind of constraint that would do the same thing as fkey.
Continue reading Foreign Key to partitioned table
This question appeared couple of times on irc, so I figured I can do a blogpost about it.
Continue reading How to make sure there is always at least one “sub" record?
On 5th of February, Tom Lane committed patch:
Add num_nulls() and num_nonnulls() to count NULL arguments.
An example use-case is "CHECK(num_nonnulls(a,b,c) = 1)" to assert that
exactly one of a,b,c isn't NULL. The functions are variadic, so they
can also be pressed into service to count the number of null or nonnull
elements in an array.
Marko Tiikkaja, reviewed by Pavel Stehule
Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Add num_nulls() and num_nonnulls() to count NULL arguments.
On 30th of October, Tom Lane committed patch:
Implement lookbehind constraints in our regular-expression engine.
A lookbehind constraint is like a lookahead constraint in that it consumes
no text; but it checks for existence (or nonexistence) of a match *ending*
at the current point in the string, rather than one *starting* at the
current point. This is a long-requested feature since it exists in many
other regex libraries, but Henry Spencer had never got around to
implementing it in the code we use.
Just making it work is actually pretty trivial; but naive copying of the
logic for lookahead constraints leads to code that often spends O(N^2) time
to scan an N-character string, because we have to run the match engine
from string start to the current probe point each time the constraint is
checked. In typical use-cases a lookbehind constraint will be written at
the start of the regex and hence will need to be checked at every character
--- so O(N^2) work overall. To fix that, I introduced a third copy of the
core DFA matching loop, paralleling the existing longest() and shortest()
loops. This version, matchuntil(), can suspend and resume matching given
a couple of pointers' worth of storage space. So we need only run it
across the string once, stopping at each interesting probe point and then
resuming to advance to the next one.
I also put in an optimization that simplifies one-character lookahead and
lookbehind constraints, such as "(?=x)" or "(?<!\w)", into AHEAD and BEHIND
constraints, which already existed in the engine. This avoids the overhead
of the LACON machinery entirely for these rather common cases.
The net result is that lookbehind constraints run a factor of three or so
slower than Perl's for multi-character constraints, but faster than Perl's
for one-character constraints ... and they work fine for variable-length
constraints, which Perl gives up on entirely. So that's not bad from a
competitive perspective, and there's room for further optimization if
anyone cares. (In reality, raw scan rate across a large input string is
probably not that big a deal for Postgres usage anyway; so I'm happy if
Continue reading Waiting for 9.6 – Implement lookbehind constraints in our regular-expression engine.