On 27th of February, Heikki Linnakangas committed patch:
Add support for piping COPY to/from an external program.
This includes backend "COPY TO/FROM PROGRAM '...'" syntax, and corresponding
psql \copy syntax. Like with reading/writing files, the backend version is
superuser-only, and in the psql version, the program is run in the client.
In the passing, the psql \copy STDIN/STDOUT syntax is subtly changed: if you
the stdin/stdout is quoted, it's now interpreted as a filename. For example,
"\copy foo from 'stdin'" now reads from a file called 'stdin', not from
standard input. Before this, there was no way to specify a filename called
stdin, stdout, pstdin or pstdout.
This creates a new function in pgport, wait_result_to_str(), which can
be used to convert the exit status of a process, as returned by wait(3),
to a human-readable string.
Etsuro Fujita, reviewed by Amit Kapila.
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Add support for piping COPY to/from an external program.
On 2nd of February, Tom Lane committed patch:
Create a psql command \gset to store query results into psql variables.
This eases manipulation of query results in psql scripts.
Pavel Stehule, reviewed by Piyush Newe, Shigeru Hanada, and Tom Lane
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Create a psql command \gset to store query results into psql variables
On 23rd of January, Robert Haas committed patch:
New command-line utility to test whether a server is ready to
Phil Sorber, reviewed by Michael Paquier and Peter Eisentraut
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – pg_isready
On 13th of December, Heikki Linnakangas committed patch:
Allow a streaming replication standby to follow a timeline switch.
Before this patch, streaming replication would refuse to start replicating
if the timeline in the primary doesn't exactly match the standby. The
situation where it doesn't match is when you have a master, and two
standbys, and you promote one of the standbys to become new master.
Promoting bumps up the timeline ID, and after that bump, the other standby
would refuse to continue.
There's significantly more timeline related logic in streaming replication
now. First of all, when a standby connects to primary, it will ask the
primary for any timeline history files that are missing from the standby.
The missing files are sent using a new replication command TIMELINE_HISTORY,
and stored in standby's pg_xlog directory. Using the timeline history files,
the standby can follow the latest timeline present in the primary
(recovery_target_timeline='latest'), just as it can follow new timelines
appearing in an archive directory.
START_REPLICATION now takes a TIMELINE parameter, to specify exactly which
timeline to stream WAL from. This allows the standby to request the primary
to send over WAL that precedes the promotion. The replication protocol is
changed slightly (in a backwards-compatible way although there's little hope
of streaming replication working across major versions anyway), to allow
replication to stop when the end of timeline reached, putting the walsender
back into accepting a replication command.
Many thanks to Amit Kapila for testing and reviewing various versions of
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Allow a streaming replication standby to follow a timeline switch.
On 8th of December, Tom Lane committed patch:
Support automatically-updatable views.
This patch makes "simple" views automatically updatable, without the need
to create either INSTEAD OF triggers or INSTEAD rules. "Simple" views
are those classified as updatable according to SQL-92 rules. The rewriter
transforms INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE commands on such views directly into an
equivalent command on the underlying table, which will generally have
noticeably better performance than is possible with either triggers or
user-written rules. A view that has INSTEAD OF triggers or INSTEAD rules
continues to operate the same as before.
For the moment, security_barrier views are not considered simple.
Also, we do not support WITH CHECK OPTION. These features may be
added in future.
Dean Rasheed, reviewed by Amit Kapila
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Support automatically-updatable views.
On 6th of December, Alvaro Herrera committed patch:
Background worker processes
Background workers are postmaster subprocesses that run arbitrary
user-specified code. They can request shared memory access as well as
backend database connections; or they can just use plain libpq frontend
Modules listed in shared_preload_libraries can register background
workers in their _PG_init() function; this is early enough that it's not
necessary to provide an extra GUC option, because the necessary extra
resources can be allocated early on. Modules can install more than one
bgworker, if necessary.
Care is taken that these extra processes do not interfere with other
postmaster tasks: only one such process is started on each ServerLoop
iteration. This means a large number of them could be waiting to be
started up and postmaster is still able to quickly service external
connection requests. Also, shutdown sequence should not be impacted by
a worker process that's reasonably well behaved (i.e. promptly responds
to termination signals.)
The current implementation lets worker processes specify their start
time, i.e. at what point in the server startup process they are to be
started: right after postmaster start (in which case they mustn't ask
for shared memory access), when consistent state has been reached
(useful during recovery in a HOT standby server), or when recovery has
terminated (i.e. when normal backends are allowed).
In case of a bgworker crash, actions to take depend on registration
data: if shared memory was requested, then all other connections are
taken down (as well as other bgworkers), just like it were a regular
backend crashing. The bgworker itself is restarted, too, within a
configurable timeframe (which can be configured to be never).
More features to add to this framework can be imagined without much
effort, and have been discussed, but this seems good enough as a useful
An elementary sample module is supplied.
Author: Álvaro Herrera
This patch is loosely based on prior patches submitted by KaiGai Kohei,
and unsubmitted code by Simon Riggs.
Reviewed by: KaiGai Kohei, Markus Wanner, Andres Freund,
Heikki Linnakangas, Simon Riggs, Amit Kapila
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Background worker processes
On 7th of August, Tom Lane committed patch:
Implement SQL-standard LATERAL subqueries.
This patch implements the standard syntax of LATERAL attached to a
sub-SELECT in FROM, and also allows LATERAL attached to a function in FROM,
since set-returning function calls are expected to be one of the principal
The main change here is a rewrite of the mechanism for keeping track of
which relations are visible for column references while the FROM clause is
being scanned. The parser "namespace" lists are no longer lists of bare
RTEs, but are lists of ParseNamespaceItem structs, which carry an RTE
pointer as well as some visibility-controlling flags. Aside from
supporting LATERAL correctly, this lets us get rid of the ancient hacks
that required rechecking subqueries and JOIN/ON and function-in-FROM
expressions for invalid references after they were initially parsed.
Invalid column references are now always correctly detected on sight.
In passing, remove assorted parser error checks that are now dead code by
virtue of our having gotten rid of add_missing_from, as well as some
comments that are obsolete for the same reason. (It was mainly
add_missing_from that caused so much fudging here in the first place.)
The planner support for this feature is very minimal, and will be improved
in future patches. It works well enough for testing purposes, though.
catversion bump forced due to new field in RangeTblEntry.
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Implement SQL-standard LATERAL subqueries.
On 20th of July, Robert Haas committed patch:
Make new event trigger facility actually do something.
Commit 3855968f328918b6cd1401dd11d109d471a54d40 added syntax, pg_dump,
psql support, and documentation, but the triggers didn't actually fire.
With this commit, they now do. This is still a pretty basic facility
overall because event triggers do not get a whole lot of information
about what the user is trying to do unless you write them in C; and
there's still no option to fire them anywhere except at the very
beginning of the execution sequence, but it's better than nothing,
and a good building block for future work.
Along the way, add a regression test for ALTER LARGE OBJECT, since
testing of event triggers reveals that we haven't got one.
Dimitri Fontaine and Robert Haas
This was preceded (two days earlier) by commit, also by Robert Haas, which stated:
Syntax support and documentation for event triggers.
They don't actually do anything yet; that will get fixed in a
follow-on commit. But this gets the basic infrastructure in place,
including CREATE/ALTER/DROP EVENT TRIGGER; support for COMMENT,
SECURITY LABEL, and ALTER EXTENSION .. ADD/DROP EVENT TRIGGER;
pg_dump and psql support; and documentation for the anticipated
initial feature set.
Dimitri Fontaine, with review and a bunch of additional hacking by me.
Thom Brown extensively reviewed earlier versions of this patch set,
but there's not a whole lot of that code left in this commit, as it
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Event triggers
On 11th of July, Tom Lane committed patch:
Add array_remove() and array_replace() functions. <span class="refs"> <span class="head" title="heads/master"><a href="/gitweb/?p=postgresql.git;a=shortlog;h=refs/heads/master">master
These functions support removing or replacing array element value(s)
matching a given search value. Although intended mainly to support a
future array-foreign-key feature, they seem useful in their own right.
Marco Nenciarini and Gabriele Bartolini, reviewed by Alex Hunsaker
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Add array_remove() and array_replace() functions.
On 28th of June, Robert Haas committed patch:
Dramatically reduce System V shared memory consumption.
Except when compiling with EXEC_BACKEND, we'll now allocate only a tiny
amount of System V shared memory (as an interlock to protect the data
directory) and allocate the rest as anonymous shared memory via mmap.
This will hopefully spare most users the hassle of adjusting operating
system parameters before being able to start PostgreSQL with a
reasonable value for shared_buffers.
There are a bunch of documentation updates needed here, and we might
need to adjust some of the HINT messages related to shared memory as
well. But it's not 100% clear how portable this is, so before we
write the documentation, let's give it a spin on the buildfarm and
see what turns red.
Continue reading Waiting for 9.3 – Dramatically reduce System V shared memory consumption.