November 5th, 2007 by depesz | Tags: | 37 comments »
Did it help? If yes - maybe you can help me?

in most applications you have some variant of this table:

id serial PRIMARY KEY,
username TEXT NOT NULL,
passwd TEXT

and, usually, the passwd stores user password in clear text way.

this is usually not a problem, but in case you'd like to add password encryption in database, there are some ways to do it – and i'll show you which way i like most.

first solution is a no-brainer. make the app crypt the password and do whatever is neccessary.

now, this looks like a fine solution until you'll have more than 1 application that will be checking/setting passwords. and – usually – you will.

after all – even if you do not plan to put another website on the same database, odds are one day you'll want to change user password from psql. and what then?

so, it is better to leave the encryption job to postgres itself.

to make it so, we'll do some “magic".

first, let's make our users table in a way that it will automatically convert entered password to encrypted.

to do it – we will need pgcrypto module from contrib directory. if you dont know what i'm talking about – that's really bad, as contrib modules are extremly useful.

if you're using pre-packaged postgresql, there should be package named postgresql-contrib-your-version or similarly. just install it.

then, find pgcrypto.sql file. usually you can find it in places like /usr/share/postgresql/contrib/pgcrypto.sql, /usr/local/share/postgresql/contrib/pgcrypto.sql, /usr/local/pgsql/share/postgresql/contrib/pgcrypto.sql or similar.

when you have the file, just connect to your database of choice (using superuser account) and issue (from psql):

\i /home/pgdba/work/share/postgresql/contrib/pgcrypto.sql

which will load the pgcrypto module to your database.

now, for some more interesting fun.

for our users table, we'll add a simple trigger:

IF substr(NEW.passwd, 1, 3) <> '$1$' THEN
NEW.passwd := crypt( NEW.passwd, gen_salt('md5') );
LANGUAGE 'plpgsql';
CREATE TRIGGER trg_crypt_users_pass BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE ON users FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE trg_crypt_users_pass();

you might wander why there is this if-with-substr.

it's simple – we want to encrypt only the password that do not start with ‘$1$'. reason? crypted password will start with ‘$1$', and if we didn't put the “if" there, the first update to users table (even if it wouldn't touch passwd field) would scramble the password, thus rendering account unusable.

now, let's test if it works:

INSERT INTO users (username, passwd) VALUES ('depesz', 'depesz');
INSERT INTO users (username, passwd) VALUES ('NULL-user', NULL);
INSERT INTO users (username, passwd) VALUES ('test', ' ');
INSERT INTO users (username, passwd) VALUES ('foo', '$1$');

and what is in the table?

# SELECT * FROM users;
id | username | passwd
1 | depesz | $1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0
2 | NULL-user | [null]
3 | test | $1$ik3jkoki$UO4MSNsHSb5SQdq7GeZRS/
4 | foo | $1$
(4 rows)

ok, works as expected. the case with passwd = ‘$1$' is dubious, and we could “fix" the issue with adding length-check to trigger, but it doesn't really bother
me, so i'll leave it as it is – after all, to make a full check i would have to use a regexp, which is not really nice.

so, now our table has encrypted passwords. and i can easily search for users:

# select * from users where username = 'depesz' and crypt('depesz', passwd) = passwd;
id | username | passwd
1 | depesz | $1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0
(1 row)

bad password check:

# select * from users where username = 'depesz' and crypt('bad-password', passwd) = passwd;
id | username | passwd
(0 rows)

now. it's not really “easily". i could definitely do better than that.

so, let's introduce another datatype: “password":


now, let's convert data:

alter table users alter column passwd type password;

ok, but having another datatype doesn't give me anything good. yet.

i'd like to be able to do things like:

select * from users where username = 'depesz' and passwd = 'depesz';

without all this “crypt()" mess. so, let's write some small, custom operators.

because passwords can only “match" or “not match" we will need only 2 operators: “=" and “<>“. so, there goes the code:

CREATE FUNCTION password_leq(password, TEXT) RETURNS bool as $BODY$
SELECT crypt($2, $1) = $1::text;
$BODY$ language sql immutable;
leftarg = password,
rightarg = text,
negator = <>,
procedure = password_leq

CREATE FUNCTION password_lne(password, TEXT) RETURNS bool as $BODY$
SELECT crypt($2, $1) <> $1::text;
$BODY$ language sql immutable;
leftarg = password,
rightarg = text,
negator = =,
procedure = password_lne

CREATE FUNCTION password_req(TEXT, password) RETURNS bool as $BODY$
SELECT crypt($1, $2) = $2::text;
$BODY$ language sql immutable;
leftarg = text,
rightarg = password,
negator = <>,
procedure = password_req

CREATE FUNCTION password_rne(TEXT, password) RETURNS bool as $BODY$
SELECT crypt($1, $2) <> $2::text;
$BODY$ language sql immutable;
leftarg = text,
rightarg = password,
negator = =,
procedure = password_rne

now, thanks to this we can:

# select * from users where passwd = 'depesz'::text;
id | username | passwd
1 | depesz | $1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0
(1 row)

but, unfortunatelly, this will fail:

# select * from users where passwd = 'depesz';
id | username | passwd
(0 rows)

reason is very simple – postgresql, when running this query will implicitly cast ‘depesz' to ‘password', so the “=" operator will be called for (password = password) and not for (password = text)!

to make it working we'll need 2 more operators:

CREATE FUNCTION password_beq(left password, right password) RETURNS bool as $BODY$
left_crypted bool;
right_crypted bool;
left_crypted := ( substr(left, 1, 3) = '$1$' );
right_crypted := ( substr(right, 1, 3) = '$1$' );
IF (left_crypted) AND (NOT right_crypted) THEN
RETURN crypt(right, left)::TEXT = left::TEXT;
IF (NOT left_crypted) AND (right_crypted) THEN
RETURN crypt(left, right)::TEXT = right::TEXT;
RETURN left::TEXT = right::TEXT;
$BODY$ language plpgsql immutable;
leftarg = password,
rightarg = password,
negator = <>,
procedure = password_beq

CREATE FUNCTION password_bne(password, password) RETURNS bool as $BODY$
SELECT NOT password_beq($1, $2);
$BODY$ language sql immutable;
leftarg = password,
rightarg = password,
negator = =,
procedure = password_bne

now, the password_beq function is quite complex. what it does? it tries to guess which side of comparison is encrypted, and which is not.

when only one side of comparison has ‘$1$' at the beginning, it crypts the other argument, and then compares. if both, or none of arguments have ‘$1$' – it just compares them as simple strings.

now, i can:

# select * from users where passwd = 'depesz';
id | username | passwd
1 | depesz | $1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0
(1 row)

so, without modifying client code i modified storage of password to make them crypted. which is good, at the very least for me.

this solution has one slight “issue" which can be perceived both as a drawback, or as a bonus benefit:

# select * from users where passwd = '$1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0';
id | username | passwd
1 | depesz | $1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0
(1 row)

that is – instead of using standard password i can also authenticate using its hash. whether it's good i leave for you to decide – for me it's definitely a benefit.

  1. 37 comments

  2. # Tom Davis
    Nov 5, 2007

    The implication of using a table for storing user/password information is that you are bypassing the database authorization for something homegrown. There are two basic problems with this
    1) Security: the application itself must be given authorization of the most powerful users, meaning that when someone compromises your application server (eg: apache) they have full access to your data.
    2) Scalability: anyone wanting access to the data must either be given that same all powerful authorization, or additional authorization schemes must be implemented (say someone wants to use ODBC/JDBC to access the data for some reporting tool). And of course if you add new features to the application the old parts must be reviewed to ensure that the security model is not being compromised.

    A solution which avoids these pitfalls is to use the database connection as the authorization function in your application. The downsize for that is that each user must use a separate connection which for HTTP means each GET/POST will create a new connection (connection pooling tends not to be useful as it is unlikely that a user will be serviced by the same process).

    Nevertheless, in many cases, especially for intranet applications for small and medium sized offices, the performance hit is negligible and the improved security and data access is well worth using the database authorization system.

  3. # Andrew Hammond
    Nov 6, 2007

    Tom, I think you have a good approach there for small business solutions, sacrificing pooling simply isn’t acceptable for larger scale soltions. In those cases, it makes good sense to have a separate user for each application or administrator who’s going to be connecting to the database, and then do application level identification in a system such as depsez is discussing.

    My worry about the solution discussed above is that it’s using md5 instead of the more robust / security-droid compliant sha512. Fortunately that’s easily fixed:

    SELECT encode(digest(decode(TEXT ‘swordfish’, TEXT ‘escape’), TEXT ‘sha512’),
    TEXT ‘base64’);

    Or you can skip that outer layer of encoding and handle passwords as bytea. Annoyingly, this requires having built against openssl 0.9.8+.

  4. Nov 6, 2007

    Just one, minor issue: You are talking about hashing, not encryption. Encryption is reversible, hashing is not (which is the whole point of hashing).

  5. # Ron
    Nov 6, 2007

    And for the paranoid, you should probably throw in a random salt, different for each user, to protect against table-lookups of the hashes , should they somehow be compromised.

  6. Nov 6, 2007

    @Tom Davis:
    hmm .. i wouldn’t use db-authen in any website scenario. 1.5 million users?!

    @Andrew Hammond:
    i really think md5 is sufficient for passwords. using sha* is good for cryptographically secure document signatures, but for password – i don’t see real need to use anything > md5.

    sure, you’re right.

    take a look at trigger code – salt *is* random.
    gen_salt() function generates random salt.

  7. # Tzvetan Tzankov
    Nov 6, 2007

    there is other contrib package chkpass, which does mostly the same thing

  8. Nov 6, 2007

    @Tzvetan Tzankov:
    kind of. chkpass uses old algorithm, which has one very important drawback – handles correctly only password up to 8 characters long.
    also – there are ready databases (web-accessible) which “decode” those password.

  9. # Jeff Davis
    Nov 6, 2007

    If you use a trigger to encrypt the password, keep in mind that there are still many situations in which the password might be revealed to the DBA.

    For instance:
    * anything that causes the statement to be logged, such as log_min_duration_statement
    * anyone who has access to pg_stat_activity. You might have monitoring scripts that show you some query worth looking at, and that query might end up being the one to insert the password.

    And probably some other stuff. It is certainly worth considering to keep all encryption _outside_ of the database. You can’t keep information secure from the DBA if it’s encrypted by the database. And if not keeping it secure from the DBA, why not just revoke privileges from everyone else?

  10. Nov 6, 2007

    @Jeff Davis:
    actually i think that protecting “against” dba is futile anyway. dba can do whatever he want, so with some level of knowledge he can circumvent any kind of solution (as long as unencrypted/unhashed data shows to db server at least once).

  11. # Jeff Davis
    Nov 7, 2007


    If you’re not protecting against the DBA, then why not just REVOKE and forget encryption all together?

    If the goal is to avoid accidentally storing the plaintext password (as DBA), I showed two examples where it’s easy to accidentally store the password in plaintext if you’re the DBA.

  12. Nov 7, 2007

    @Jeff Davis:
    usually against “hacks”.
    somebody hacks, gets dump of database.
    somebody steals backups.
    this kind of things.

    of course hacker that will hack, get root access will be able to circumvent it, but it will take longer time, thus it makes the hack easier to be revealed.

    also – sometimes password encryption/hashing in database is external requirement (think: business, local law, common practice)

  13. # Jeff Davis
    Nov 8, 2007


    Oh, I see. Makes sense, particularly the point about backups.

  14. # Jeff Davis
    Nov 8, 2007


    However, I would like to add that if there is a legal requirement that you not store plaintext passwords, be very careful that no SQL statements get logged, and that no monitoring scripts watch pg_stat_activity. Otherwise a password might get saved in plaintext in a log or notification.

  15. # Ian Harding
    Dec 9, 2008

    # select * from users where passwd = ‘$1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0’;
    id | username | passwd
    1 | depesz | $1$Im51jH1k$/9AOm/t.4BixxF7YzZ5hx0
    (1 row)

    Doesn’t this negate the whole thing? I thought the purpose was to make the hashed values useless to a bad guy. This makes them identical in function to the real passwords.

  16. Dec 9, 2008

    @Ian Harding:
    Well yes and no.

    To get hashes bad guy would have to have database privileges, and in this situation we’re screwed anyway. The point is that he/she will not be able to get the passwords to use them someplace else.

  17. # Ian Harding
    Dec 10, 2008

    I was thinking of backups. If I get your backups, I have everyone’s password. If the system doesn’t allow passing the hash to log in, I just have a bunch of hashes that I have to crack. THEN I have everyone’s password. But that takes a while.

    On the other point, if I crack your web server, I have database privileges as the web user account. That should leave you only partially screwed since the web server connects as an unprivileged user. It takes a whole other level of kung-fu to get to super user from there. And it takes a while.

    Anyway, not throwing rocks, this is an excellent intro to pgcrypto and custom operators. Thanks!

  18. # kpy3
    Jun 18, 2010

    This doesn’t work on PostgreSQL 9.0 beta 2, function password_beq fails with error
    ERROR: syntax error at or near “,”
    LINE 58: left_crypted := ( substr(left, 1, 3) = ‘$1$’ );

    ********** Error **********

    ERROR: syntax error at or near “,”
    SQL state: 42601
    Character: 1404

  19. Jun 18, 2010

    that’s because left is now keyword. just prefix variable names, and you’ll be good.

  20. # kpy3
    Jun 18, 2010

    Oh! I’ve missed it, thanx.

  21. Jun 28, 2010

    someone can help me!!
    use what encryption this one

    can someone encrypt for me??

    thanks before

  22. Jun 28, 2010

    @need help:
    it looks like crypt() with md5 algorithm, but with empty (or removed) salt.

  23. # Joanna
    Apr 22, 2011

    General question about performance – how are indexes used for such encrypted field? I am writing about situation when we store sensitive data
    Are they used when searching for the given value or the whole table is scanned when I search with unencrypted value from e.g. code ?

    Thanks !

  24. Apr 22, 2011

    not sure I understand. Why would you search using encrypted field?
    What’s the usecase?

  25. # Joanna
    Apr 22, 2011

    The case is that I have some fields encrypted but I need to be able to search on this field. Your solution seems to fit my needs however I am not sure how it affects performance, let’s say such query

    select * from “table” where encrypted = “my_unencrypted_value”

    would return what I need.

    The question is how index will be build, will postgres use my overloaded comparison operator or the standard one?

    Thank you !

  26. Apr 22, 2011

    don’t know frankly. Most likely it will not be indexed.

  27. # Paul
    Feb 22, 2012

    What does the ‘:=’ (colon equals) operator do?

  28. Feb 22, 2012

    variable assignment in plpgsql.

  29. # DURE
    Jul 22, 2012

    I have the same table (users) with one more column (“Name”). When I insert a new user with his password the sql works like a charm but when I change the value of the column “Name” and add a new column “Surname” it doesn’t work anymore. i mean the code:
    [select * from users where passwd = ‘depesz’] doesn’t find the user. Why is that happening?


  30. Jul 22, 2012


    adding columns doesn’t matter anything to the trigger. And I can’t comment on what’s happening without specific case, with full schema, and a way for me to replicate the error.

  31. # DURE
    Jul 23, 2012


    Yeah sorry, it was a stupid error from my place. Your
    code works like a charm.

    For the records I was trying to use the Blowfish scheme ( instead of the md5.

    To do that you just need to replace the trigger trg_crypt_users_pass():

    IF substr(NEW.passwd, 1, 4) ‘$2a$’ THEN

    NEW.passwd := crypt( NEW.passwd, gen_salt(‘bf’) );

    END IF;

    and the function password_beq :

    left_crypted := ( substr(left, 1, 4) = ‘$2a$’ );
    right_crypted := ( substr(right, 1, 4) = ‘$2a$’ );

    It works fine for me.

  32. # Bandhalaraja
    Nov 30, 2012

    Hi your ENCRYPTED PASSWORDS IN DATABASE articles is very use fully for me thanks of lot sir and hats off to you. and one more detail i need how to upload(Store) and retrieve image in postgres sql data base using

    Thanks & Advance

  33. # Charles Bradshaw
    Apr 12, 2013


    I know this is obvious! Hashing passwords prior to storage is only useful in situations where the clear is presented by the user (or application). So that the hash can be re-applied before comparison.

    In the situation where the clear is required by the application in the absence of the user, for example, keeping passwords for auth protocols which never transmit the password over the wire. SMTP auth CRAM-MD5, DIGEST-MD5. The application has to recover the clear password from the database!

    In these circumstances a possible solution is to use a symetric encryption, AES for example.

    The problem now is we need a method of securing the AES key which, by definition, must be available to DB!

    Any ideas?

  34. Apr 12, 2013

    Well, I can imagine some ways to handle it – for example, make a compiled c function, callable from pg, that returns the password, and set proper privileges to the function.
    Or do the AES in application, and make providing password a one-time on application start, interactive thing.

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